Archaeological Basketry Treatments

May 13, 2010

 Table by Dana K. Senge and Ellen Carrlee, updated May 2010

Most recent version to be seen at Dana’s website: http://waterloggedbasketry.blogspot.com

Reviewed by Kathryn Bernick, May 2010

table for pdf

Site Treatment Condition Notes
Site: Alouette Basket Site (DhRp 19)Date recovered/treatment:Location of Collections: RBCM[1]  Materials: warp: red cedar branch or trunk, weft: spruce root, IDs by ML Florian (Bernick:1991)

Age:  

Burial Conditions: “a film of blue-grey clay covers the elements indicating that it was once buried in the type of matrix characteristic of wet sites” (Bernick 1991, pg 110)

Deterioration:

SOLVENT DRY“…immersion for one week in 10% ethanol, then increasing proportion of ethanol by 10% every week for 10 weeks (until reaching 100%)…  slowly dried between sheets of plate glass…”  (RBCM Conservation Lab records: 2629) 1991: “Wood elements rigid and apparently stable”.  (Bernick 1991, pg 111)2010: To date the authors have not examined the basketry material from this site.
Site: Axeti (FaSu 1)  Date recovered/treatment: 1969-72Location of Collections:  Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Simon Fraser UniversityMaterials: inner bark from western red cedar, root and splints.

Age: 1500 –1710 years +/- 80 

Burial conditions:

Deterioration:

PEG TREATMENT % MW: 10% solution of PEG close to 4000 Duration: immersion varied from several weeks to three months depending on density of artifact.Heated? No 

Drying: Air-Dried

(Hobler 1976)

2010:
Site: Beach Grove (DgRs 1)Date recovered/treatment: 1962Locations of Collections: LoA of UBC[2]Materials: No reference found identifying material types or species thin wood splints, likely red cedar (Bernick 2010) 

Age: Age of water-saturated component: 1603 years old +/- 120

Burial Conditions: stratum of finely textured silty clay of bluish-grey color below watertable (Fraser delta alluvial deposits, anaerobic)

Deterioration:

One fragment of basketry treated in field by the archaeologists and block-lifted on slab of mud; no further treatment of the basketry (Bernick, 2010).Others were treated with applications of Houston No. 3 Preservative supplied by the B.C. Provincial Museum (now RBCM) and “Firewater”“…excavators preferred the Firewater because it hardened the punky wood…” (Bernick 1991, pg 113) 1991: “…artifacts are shrunken and brittle, and, in most cases, the wood has severely checked…basketry was block-lifted-… still firmly set on a slab of mud” (Bernick 1991 pg 113).2010: To date the authors have not examined the basketry material from this site. Upon the recommendation of collection manager at LoA of UBC requests were made in 2008 and 2009 to the Tsawwassen and Musquem Bands for permission to examine and possibly sample material from the collection were unanswered.
Site: Biderbost  (45 SN 100)Date recovered/treatment: 1959-early 1970s/likely treated immediately upon recoveryLocation of Collections: Burke Museum[3] Materials: wood splints, presumed to be western red cedar withes or roots 

Age: ca. 2000 BP

Deterioration:

COAT WITH ADHESIVEPainted or soaked in a solution specially prepared (25% Plyamul Adhesive #9153- polyvinyl acetate soln from Reichold Chemical (now Forbo) and 75% Firewater (50cc heavy detergent of Firewater Company of Los Altos)  (Nordquist:1976) 2009: Material is dark brown, dry in appearance.   Some spots of surface sheen from adhesive.  Dirt glue to surface of inner bark elements.Elements are rigid but have some flexibility, not brittle with minor pressure.
Site: Blundell Road Basket (DgRs 15)Date recovered/treatment: 1967Location of Collections: LoA at UBC Materials: wood splints, likely western red cedar withe

Age: 2180 +/- 170 BP (direct date on the basket)

Burial conditions: find site: 4 feet deep in sphagnum peat, probably a slough when originally deposited (Bernick:1991)

Deterioration:

AIR DRYBasketry was not treated with any preservative. (Bernick 1991, 114) 1991: “wood is now brittle and somewhat shrunken.  Matted sphagnum moss… still adheres to large portions of the surfaces”. (Bernick 1991, pg 114).2010: To date the authors have not examined the basketry material from this site.
Site: Castle Hill (49-SIT-002)Date recovered/treatment: 1995-1998Location of Collections: Alaska State MuseumMaterials: likely spruce root

Age of Collections: ~ 700 radiocarbon years

Burial conditions:

Deterioration: Little deterioration

 

AIR DRYNot fully waterlogged when found, only slightly damp. Basketry slowly air-dried in fridge for several years, exact time it took to dry unknown.(Alaska State Museum treatment records) 2009: Stable. Can be safely handled and turned over for examination.
Site: Conway wet site (45 SK 59b)Date recovered/treatment: 1970Location of Collections: BurkeMaterials: some entirely cedar bark, some eintrely wood splints (likely cedar withes), some a combination (Bernick 2010)

Age of Collections: ~ 700 radiocarbon years

Burial conditions:  anaerobic alluvial deposits below watertable in Skagit River delta; a slough when originally deposited;  

Deterioration:

PEG TREATMENTMaterials were soaked in ethanol (95%) for two days, then:% MW: 33% PEG 1000 Duration: 2-4 days 

Heated? No

Drying: Air-dried on racks for 1-2 weeks

(Munsell 1976)

1976: recommend subsequent retreatment since basketry appears dry. (Munsell 1976)2009: Color variations from red-brown, black and light grey.  Light grey from remaining soil matrix. Some have a great deal of variation in tone, others all black.  Basketry materials dry in appearance (not waxy, saturated etc).Materials are stiff with some flexibility on in the elements. 
Site: Cowichan Bay Site Date recovered/treatment: ~2000Location of Collections: possibly RBCMMaterials:

Age:  

Burial conditions:

Deterioration:

AIR DRYAir dried following excavation.  Sent to CCI to see if condition could be improved.  Currently at CCI. (Confirm?) 2010:
Site: DgRs 36Date recovered/treatment: 1990’s Location of Collections: possibly at UBC?Materials:

Age: ca. 2100 years old

Burial conditions:  found in back dirt pile possibly came from same location as Water hazard (DgRs 30) 

Deterioration:

Possibly treated at RBCM% MW: Duration: Heated?

Drying:

2010:
Site: DhRq 19Date recovered/treatment: 1990-93 Location of Collections: Materials: western red cedar inner bark and limb/root

Age: radiocarbon dates average ca. 900 BP

Burial conditions:  found eroding out of the Fraser River beach in a tidal environment. 

Deterioration: The materials looked to be in good condition when found (Bernick 2010)

Possibly treated at RBCM% MW: Duration: Heated?

Drying:

2010:
Site: DgRn 9Date recovered/treatment: 1960’s Location of Collections: RBCMMaterials: western red cedar splints

Age: style indicates it is 2000 years old

Burial conditions:  found eroding from Fraser River Beach in Fraser Valley  

Deterioration:

Possibly treated at RBCM ?No treatment records?Each fragment appears to have been treated using a different method? (Bernick 2010) 2010:
Site: Ditidaht Sites DeSf 9 and DeSf 10Date recovered/treatment: 1994 Location of Collections: RBCM (requires permission of Parks Canada, Ditidaht First Nation and RBCM)Materials: western red cedar inner bark

Age: ca. 600 BP

Burial conditions: Deterioration:

(Bernick 2010)

Treated at Parks Canada in Ottawa (contact for treatment information)% MW: Duration: Heated?

Drying:

2010:
Site: English Camp Site (45 SJ 24)Date recovered/treatment: 1971 Location of Collections: Burke MuseumMaterials: 2 basketry artifacts: one is a basket fragment of wood splints, likely western red cedar withes;  the other is a hat possibly of western red cedar inner bark (Bernick 2010).

Age: ca. 2000 years old

(Sprague 1976)

Burial conditions:  anaerobic water-saturated deposits at bottom of shell midden 

Deterioration:

PEG TREATMENT% MW: 50% Carbowax (PEG) 1500  in water.   Duration: No mention of timeHeated? No 

Drying: No mention of drying technique, likely air-dried.

(Sprague 1976)

(Note:  PEG 1500 used in treatment may now be 540 Blend due to name change in mid 70’s)

2010: Basketry has a dry brown appearance.  Materials are delicate with little flexibility.
Site: Fishtown (45 SK 99)Date recovered/treatment: 1974Location of Collections: Swinomish Indian Tribal CommunityMaterials: species IDs has not yet been performed

Age of Collections:1220 years old +/- 70 years

Burial conditions:  water-saturated anaerobic deposits 

Deterioration:

PEG TREATMENT % MW: 50% polyethylene glycol 1500 in water Duration: 4 weeksHeated? No 

Drying: Air-dried. 

(Blukis Onat 1976)

(Note:  PEG 1500 used in treatment may now be 540 Blend due to name change in mid 70’s)

2009: Request to examine collections respectfully declined due to lack of protocol in collections policy.
Site: Glenrose Cannery Site (DgRr 6)Date recovered/treatment: recovered 1988 & 1990, treated in 1991Location of Collections: LoA at UBCMaterials: collection contains cherry/maple bark; fir-wood splints (Abies) and cherry/maple bark (true bark) with cedar splint elements and salmonberrty element.  IDs by M-L Florian (reported in Eldridge 1991)

Age: 4300 BP

Burial Conditions: water saturated anaerobic deposits in Fraser estuary; deposit lies just underneath beach pebbles, consists of layers of grey and coarse sand with crushed shell. (Bernick1991) 

Deterioration:

PEG TREATMENT % MW: 10-20% aqueous soln of PEG (no MW recorded), but possibly PEG 540 Blend Duration: (no time recorded). Heated?: No 

Drying: Possibly freeze dried and consolidated with Rhoplex 33. 

(Erling 1991)

1991:“basketry is waxy and generally dark-colored” (Bernick 1991, pg 119)2010: To date the authors have not examined the basketry material from this site.
Site: Hesquiat Harbor ( ) Date recovered/treatment: Location of Collections:  RBCMMaterials: wood splint baskets

Age: 100-200 years 

Burial conditions:

Deterioration: materials removed damp not waterlogged.

AIR DRIED  
Site: Hoko Complex (45 CA 213)Date recovered/treatment: began in 1973Location of Collections: Makah Cultural and Research CenterMaterials: limb, inner bark, no reference found identifying species 

Age: 2500 year old fishing camp (Croes 1976, pg 88) 

Burial conditions:  anaerobic desposits along riverbank, Hoko River estuary 

Deterioration:

PEG TREATMENT Artifacts recovered in 1967- 50% white glue treatment.% MW: Artifacts recovered in 1973—treated with 50% PEG 1500Duration: 4 weeks

Heated? No

Drying: Air dried

(Croes 1976)

(Note:  PEG 1500 used in treatment may now be 540 Blend due to name change in mid 70’s)

2009: While most of the Hoko River materials seem darkened by not waxy the artifacts do range visually from dry (315/AL/4 ) to saturated/waxy surfaces (ACQ 910909). 
Site: Kanaka Creek basket  Date recovered/treatment: 1991Location of Collections:  Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Simon Fraser University (1992.004.001)Materials: cedar root (Winter 2010)

Age:  

Burial conditions: fine grained fluvial deposits on the north bank of the Fraser River. A large lump of silty sand coated and supported the basket.

Deterioration:

PEG TREATMENTArtifacts were rinsed to remove mud and silt, then% MW: 20% PEG 400 for 15 weeks then 6 months of 20% PEG 400 + 4% PEG 4000Duration: 9.5 months

Heated? No

Drying: Air dried, then couriered to CCI where it was freeze-dried.

2010:
Site: Lachane Site (GbTo 33)Date recovered/treatment: 1973 Location of Collections: Canadian Museum of Civilization, Gatineau, QuebecMaterials:  26 baskets are cedar bark, 1 is “inner alder bark” (Croes 1989)  

Age: 1600-2500 BP

Burial conditions: watersaturated anaerobic deposits; matrix resmbled peat (Inglis 1976) 

Deterioration:

PEG TREATMENT % MW: 10% PEG 1500 for three months, 25% PEG 1500 for three months, 50% PEG 1500 for three monthsDuration: Nine months Heated? No 

Drying: No mention of drying technique, likely air-dried

(Inglis 1976)

(Note:  PEG 1500 used in treatment may now be 540 Blend due to name change in mid 70’s)

2010: To date the authors have not examined the basketry material from this site.
Site: Little Qualicum River Site (DiSc 1)Date recovered/treatment: 1972?, 1974,1976 Location of Collections: RBCM Materials: western red cedar (all 21 basketry artifacts, all fragmentary): Some are entirely cedar bark, some entirely withe splints, some a combination.  Species IDs by K. Bernick (Bernick 1983).

Age: ca. 1000 BP

Burial Conditions:  See Stratigraphy description in Bernick 1983  (possibly A site catchment analysis of the Little Qualicum River site, DiSc 1, a wet site on the east coast of Vancouver Island, B.C.?) 

Deterioration:

1972 treatments: look for records at RBCM- possibly not PEG treatments.PEG TREATMENT% MW: 50% PEG 1500  Duration: 2 months.

Heated? No 

Drying: Air Dried.

(Simonsen 1976)

(Note: PEG 1500 used in treatment may now be 540 Blend due to name change in mid 70’s)

2010: To date the authors have not examined the basketry material from this site.(Would be interesting to view since possibly two different treatments performed on materials).
Site: Montana Creek  (49-JUN-453)Date recovered/treatment: 1989-1991 Location of Collections: exhibit, Juneau-Douglas City MuseumMaterials: Hemlock and spruce wood with split basketry-like spruce root lashings

Age: 400-600 BP 

Burial Conditions: eroding river bank with high iron content sediment, small pebbles and sand (Loring, Jon 1995)

Deterioration: Thought to have little deterioration

PEG TREATMENT% MW: 10% PEG 200, 5% PEG 1000 and 10% Carbowax Compound 20M (average mw 15,000-20,000) Duration: several months Heated? No 

Drying: Air-Dried

2005: Tan color, not shiny or waxy, no observable distortion, rather brittle (Carrlee, 2005)2009: Artifact appears stable. 
Site: Mud Bay (Qwu? Gwes) (45TN240)Date recovered/treatment: began 2000- ongoingLocation of Collections: Squaxin Island Tribe’s Museum Library and ResearchMaterials: western red cedar inner bark, maple inner bark, cedar with and root.

Age: ~500 

Burial Conditions:

Deterioration:

 

PEG TREATMENT: LONG% MW: 50% PEG 400 Duration: 4 months. Heated? No 

Drying: Air-dried

(Standard treatment of lab at South Puget Sound Community College as described in Croes, Fagan, Zehender 2008)

2007, 2008, 2009:  Requests to examine collections and learn about the materials unanswered.
Site: Munk Creek (45SK156)Date recovered/treatment:  Location of Collections: Swinomish Indian Tribal CommunityMaterials: No reference found identifying material types or species

Age: ca. 1000 AD (radiocarbon dated) 

Burial Conditions:  found buried in riverbank/channel   

Deterioration:

Not available at the time of publication. 2009: Request to examine collections denied at this time due to lack of protocol in collections policy.
Site: Musqueam East Site (DhRt 2) Date recovered/treatment: 1959;1974 / 1974-75 Location of Collections: LoA at UBCMaterials: No reference found identifying material types or species

Age:

Burial Conditions:  “blue Fraser River clay” (Bernick 1991)

Deterioration:

1959 artifact air dried.1974-75 pieces treated with polyethylene glycol.PEG TREATMENT% MW: 50% PEG (MW of PEG unknown at this time)

Duration: 4 months 

Heated? No

Drying:  Air dried

(Bernick 1991)

1991: 1974 finds pliable, waxy and dark coloured; 1959 find encrusted with mud, brittle, broken, frayed (Bernick 1991)2010: To date the authors have not examined the basketry material from this site. Requests in 2008 and 2009 to the Musquem Band for permission to examine and possibly sample material from the collection were unanswered.
Site: Musqueam Northeast (DhRt 4) Date recovered/treatment: 1973 & 1974/1973-1975Location of Collections: LoA at UBCMaterials: western red cedar withe/root  (Archer and Bernick 1990) 

Age: ca. 3000 BP

Burial Conditions: Artifacts present in two superimposed matrices: lower layer— dense silty-sandy clay, upper stratum: dark, soft silty clay (Bernick 1991). Anaerobic.  Below the water table.  Capped by stratified shell midden and above that Fraser River alluvium.  Layers with basketry about 2 m below modern surface; likely deposited in a shallow/marshy creek originally.

Deterioration:

PEG TREATMENT: MID-LONG% MW: immersed in 50% PEG 1500 Duration: 2.5-4 monthsHeated? No 

Drying: Air dried

(Note: the PEG 1500 may what we now consider 540 Blend due to name change in mid 70’s)

Staff anecdotal comments- weeping.1991“Most items are pliable and appear to be in relatively good condition…” (Bernick 1991)2010: To date the authors have not examined the basketry material from this site. Requests in 2008 and 2009 to the Musquem Band for permission to examine and possibly sample material from the collection were unanswered.
Site: Old Songhees Reserve (DcRu 25)  Date recovered/treatment: 1994Location of Collections:  RBCMMaterials: possibly yellow cedar inner bark,  western red cedar inner bark and spruce root

Age: ~150 years old. 

Burial conditions:

Deterioration:

Currently undergoing treatment at CCI. 2010:
Site Pitt River Site (DhRq 21) Date recovered/treatment: 1980Location of Collections: RBCM Materials: western red cedar splints (Bernick 1981)

Age: ca. 3000 BP 

Burial Conditions: anaerobic alluvial deposits below the water table,; basketry was in unconsolidated silty clay, 1.2 m below modern surface, likely a slough when originally deposited.   

Deterioration:

SOLVENTWoven artifact materials recovered were gently washed to removed soil and then slowly dehydrated ethanol and dried under restraint. (Bernick 1991) 1991: rigid and brittle (Bernick 1991)2010: To date the authors have not examined the basketry material from this site.
Site: Ozette (45 CA 24) Date recovered/treatment: 1970’s Location of Collections: Neah Bay, Makah Cultural and Research Center Materials: western red cedar inner bark, limb, root

Age: 450 BP or younger   

Burial Conditions: pH of 5.5-6 in 1970, water entering midden pH6 (Grosso 1976, vol 2, page 22)

Deterioration:

PEG TREATMENT% MW: 50% Carbowax in water with anti fungal agent Cytox 2013 (Gleeson and Grosso 1976)Duration: 4 weeksHeated? No 

Drying:  Air dried

(Note: the PEG 1500 may what we now consider 540 Blend due to name change in mid 70’s)

1990: Artifacts dark brown to black with layer of excess PEG on surface.  Artifacts are stable. (Cooke and Cooke 1990)2009: While published reports and lab notes indicate that these pieces were all treated the same way the outcome is varied.  All of the materials are preserved.  However some are dry and medium brown in appearance, others dark brown, still others dark with a matte waxy surface, and a few with a wet shiny appearance.  While variation may be due to difference in material types it is interesting to note that hats containing both root and inner bark have same appearance.  Thicker splint pieces are lighter in color and drier in appearance.
Site: Scowlitz (DhR1-16W) Date recovered/treatment: 1992-1993/ 1993-1994 Location of Collections: temporarily at LoA at UBC Materials: western red cedar wood splints, IDs by K. Bernick (REF: Bernick 1994) 

Age: ca. 1200 BP 

Burial Conditions:  anaerobic alluvial desposits in riverbank, apparently originally deposited elsewhere and washed into that location in antiquity.  Specifically: in a 50-cm-thick layer of orange-mottled grey muddy sand pH=4.9, overlain by 20-cm-thick blue-grey sandy mud pH=3.5; and above that 15-cm-thick loosely packed sandy mudd pH 1.7.  Bottom of the sequence (under the matrix with the baskets) was angular rocks.  Completely inundated seasonally.   

Deterioration:  “remarkably weak and in an advanced state of decomposition relative to similar material from other known sites in the region” when recovered, extensively infiltrated with rootlets (Bernick 1994) 

PEG TREATMENTTwo treatment techniques used:% MW: Baskets A and B: immersed in 20% PEG 400 in water then 6 months in 20% PEG 400 and 4% PEG 4000 (3350 in US) in waterNumbered fragments: 4 months in 20% PEG 400 in water

Heated? No 

Drying: frozen, freeze-dried, then treated with Parylene to consolidate surface.

(Conservation Treatment Records from CCI at LoA and Grant 1996)

2009: All materials appear fairly stable.  Materials have light brown, dry appearance. Very few loose bits exist in storage containers, possibly indicated stability.  Elements appear to have minor flexibility.
Site: Seymour Inlet ( ) Date recovered/treatment: Location of Collections: RBCMMaterials: wood splint baskets

Age: est.100-200 years old. 

Burial conditions:

Deterioration: materials damp not waterlogged when found. (Bernick 2010)

Air Dried. 2010:
Site: South Baranof Island (49-XPA-78)Date recovered/treatment: 1995 Location of Collections: Alaska State MuseumMaterials:  possibly hemlock or spruce by ML Florian;

Age: 4510 +/; 60 uncal BP  (cal 3350-3100 BC) 

Burial Conditions: water-saturated dark brown clayey silt, intertidal stream bank; original depositional topography uncertain, likely affected by tectonic uplift 

Deterioration: Moderate to very deteriorated?

 

 

PEG TREATMENT% MW: 20% PEG 400 and 5% PEG 4000 Duration: 6 monthsHeated? no 

Drying: Non-vacuum freezer

(ASM treatment records)

2009: Surface is dry, brown.  Flexible, almost spongy softness.  Texture of fibers evident on surface.  Too delicate for exhibition or travel.
Site: Sunken Village (35 MU 4) Date recovered/treatment: 2006/07 Location of Collections: University of Oregon Oregon State Museum ?Materials: cherry bark, western red cedar

Age: 500-700 years old (1400-1450 AD) 

Burial Conditions: in anaerobic alluvium on river bank (tidal)

Deterioration:

PEG TREATMENT% MW: 50% PEG 400 Duration: at least four months of impregnationHeated? No 

Drying:  Air Dried

(Croes, Fagan, Zehender 2008)

2010: To date the authors have not examined the basketry material from this site.  Collection materials moved to Oregon State Museum at University of Oregon in Fall 2009.
Site: Tawah Creek (49-YAK-019)Date recovered/treatment: 2004 Location of Collections: Alaska State MuseumMaterials: possibly spruce root

Age: possibly 130 years old (weir at site was dated)

Burial Conditions:

Deterioration: Moderate deterioration?

 

PEG TREATMENT% MW: 50% PEG 540 Duration: over 1 month Heated? 60 degree C oven 

Drying: non-vacuum freezer.

 (ASM treatment records)

2009: Appears stable, edges need consolidation from physical unraveling because basket has stress from its three- dimensional shape.  Has been stored in stable environment for past two years.
Site: Thorne River  (49-CRG-433)Date recovered/treatment: 1994 Location of Collections: Alaska State MuseumMaterials: root (spruce—possibly hemlock?)

Age: 3450 BCE, (5450 years old carbon 14 dating +/-)

Burial Conditions:

Deterioration: Moderate to very deteriorated?

 

PEG TREATMENT% MW: 20% PEG 400 and 5% PEG 4000 Duration: 6 months Heated? No 

Drying: non-vacuum freezer.

(ASM treatment records)

2009: Basket is mostly in one large piece and is stabilized from deterioration.  Appearance is good, but it is too fragile for exhibit or travel. Dry, flexible, spongy. 
Site: Wapato Creek (45 PI 47)Date recovered/treatment:Location of Collections: Burke Museum, Materials: western red cedar inner bark 

Age: 340 

Burial Conditions: in 2-m-deep anaerobic alluvial deposits that were covered by 2+ m of industrial fill (Munsell 1976)  

Deterioration:

PEG TREATMENTPlaced in Ethanol for two days (to reduce trapped H2O between fibers and facilitate PEG exchange) % MW: 50% PEG 1000 Duration: 2-4 days 

Heated? No 

Drying: dry on racks (1-2 weeks)

 (Munsell 1976)

2006: hat appeared dry and brittle but stable. 2010: Piece has safely traveled for exhibit for two years.
Site: Water Hazard (DgRs 30)Date recovered/treatment: 1988/1989 treatment Location of Collections: LoA at UBCMaterials: western red cedar wood splints and inner bark.  One may have yew components and another hemlock. (by Jack Gray in Bernick 1989)

Age: 1700 BP 

Burial Conditions: below watertable in anaerobic Fraser delta sediments; about 2 m below present surface; likely originally desposited in a slough or salt marsh (recovered from backhoe spoil piles ergo matrix it was in uncertain but appears to have been near interface of sandy matrix with pH 6.8 and “blue-grey silty clay” pH 6.2—Bernick 1989:30).  

Deterioration: 

PEG TREATMENT% MW: PEG 540 Blend, concentration unknown.  Duration: 4 weeks Heated? No 

Drying: Freeze dried

(Erling 1989)

2009: Artifacts appear stable.  No evidence of weeping.  Also appear to have some flexibility—but not much.  Splin fragments more flexible than inner bark.
Site: Yakutat  Date recovered/treatment: Location of Collections:  possibly at Forest Service Office, SitkaMaterials:

Age:  

Burial conditions:

Deterioration:

Treated with Silicon Oil treatment at Texas A&M 2010:

 


[1] Royal British Columbia Museum

[2] Laboratory of Archaeology of University of British Columbia

[3] Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum